Prevalence and risk factors of Ascaris lumbricoides infection in children of Manusak Village, Kupang District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

Meliance Bria, Heny Arwati, Indah Setyawati Tantular




Worm infection is one of the health problems in all tropical countries, including Indonesia. The most frequent helminthiasis is the infection caused by the Soil-Transmitted Helminth. Primary school-age children are an age group that is susceptible to helminthiasis. Worm infections can cause a serious impact if left untreated with no clean and healthy lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of STH in children of Manusak Village, East Kupang Subdistrict, Kupang District, East Nusa Tenggara Province, followed by the characterization of subjects. The analytic observational design with the cross-sectional study was applied to this research. Research subjects were 130 children aged 6-12 years old. The infection was diagnosed microscopically by the Katokatz method. Ascaris lumbricoides were the only species found infecting a total of 50 children (38.4%.). The distribution of ascariasis was higher in girls (30 or 23.08%) than in boys (20 or 15.38%), in children whose parents have no formal education (41 or 31.54%), and who their professions are a farmer. Poor hygiene and sanitation such as no washing hands with soap (27 or 20.77%) as well as the habit of not wearing footwear (47 or 36.2%) and bowel habit on the open areas (35 or 26.92%)  are the risks factors causing the high incidence of A. lumbricoides in the studied area. Enlightenment to the parents regarding good personal and environmental hygiene and sanitation along with chemotherapy from the government and related agencies is needed to achieve a durable reduction of the burden of ascariasis and other STH infection.


Keywords                   : Soil Transmitted Helminth, Ascaris lumbricoides, children,

                                      Kupang District

Correspondence        :


SoilTransmitted Helminth, Ascaris lumbricoides, children, Kupang District

Full Text:



Bayu, K. T., Pradinata, Sudarmaja, I. M., & Ariwati, N. L. (2019). Perilaku siswa SDN 4 Antiga Kelod Karangasem terhadap infeksi soil transmitted helminth. Intisari Sains Medis 2019, Volume 10, Number 3: 811-816, 10(3), 811–816. Retrieved from

BPK RI Perwakilan Prop NTT. (2019). Kabupaten Kupang. Retrieved January 20, 2020, from

Ensink, J. H. J., Hoek, W. van der, Mukhtar, M., Tahir, Z., & Amerasinghe, F. P. (2005). High Risk of Hookworm Infection Among Wastewater Farmers in Pakistan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 99(11), 809–818. Retrieved from

Garn, J. V., Mwandawiro, C. S., Birgit Nikolay, C. D. D.-B., Kihara, J. H., Brooker, S. J., Simiyu, E. W., … Freeman, and M. C. (2015). Ascaris lumbricoides Infection Following School-Based Deworming in Western Kenya: Assessing the Role of Pupils’ School and Home Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Exposures. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 94(5), 1045–1054. Retrieved from

Juhairiyah, Annida, & Indriyati, L. (2015). Gambaran Faktor Resiko Kecacingan pada Anak Sekolah Dasar di Kota Banjarmasin. Jurnal Vektor Penyakit, 9(1), 21–28. Retrieved from

Kartini, S., Kurniati, I., Jayati, N. S., & Sumitra, W. (2017). Faktor-Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Kejadian Kecacingan Soil Transmitted Helminths Pada Anak Usia 1 – 5 Tahun Di Rw 07 Geringging Kecamatan Rumbai Pesisir. JOPS (Journal Of Pharmacy and Science), 1(1), 33–39.

Lee, J., & Ryu, J. (2019). Current Status of Parasite Infections in Indonesia: A Literature Review. Korean J Parasitol 5, 7(4), 329–339. Retrieved from

Munawaroh, S., Arwati, H., & Wardhani, P. (2020). Contamination of water and soil of rice fields with soil transmitted helminths as source of transmission to farmers in Grogol sub-district, Kediri district. Jurnal Kedokteran Qanun Medika, 04(02).

Nokali, N. E. El, Bachman, H. J., & Votruba-Drzal, and E. (2010). Parent Involvement and Children’s Academic and Social Development in Elementary School. Child Dev, 81(3), 988–1005. Retrieved from

Olin, W., Paun, R., & Rindu, Y. (2019). Behavior Model of Prevention of Soil Transmitted Helminth ( Sth ) in Elementary School Student in the District of Northwest Sumba. International Journal of Medicine, Health and Food Sciences, 3(1), 1–9. Retrieved from

Oyebamiji, D. A., Ebisike, A. N., Egede, J. O., & Hassan, A. A. (2018). Knowledge, attitude and practice with respect to soil contamination by Soil-Transmitted Helminths in Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Parasite Epidemiology and Control, 3(4), e00075.

Paige, S. B., Friant, S., Clech, L., Malavé, C., Kemigabo, C., Obeti, R., & Goldberg, and T. L. (2017). Combining Footwear with Public Health Iconography to Prevent Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, 96(1), 205–213. Retrieved from

Pemerintah Daerah Kabupaten Kupang. (2013). Profil Daerah Kabupaten Kupang. Retrieved from[_Konten_]-Konten D1365.pdf

Sastry, A. S., & Bhat, S. (2019). Essential of Medical Parasitology (second; D. Mishra, Ed.). New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher.

Schmidlin, T., Hu¨rlimann, E., Silue´, K. D., Yapi, R. B., Houngbedji, C., Kouadio, B. A., … Raso, G. (2013). Effects of Hygiene and Defecation Behavior on Helminths and Intestinal Protozoa Infections in Taabo, Co ˆte d’Ivoire. PLOS ONE, 8(6), e65722. Retrieved from

Silver, Z. A., Kaliappan, S. P., Samuel, P., Venugopal, S., Kang, G., Sarkar, R., & Ajjampur, S. S. R. (2018). Geographical distribution of soil transmitted helminths and the effects of community type in South Asia and South East Asia – A systematic review. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 1–13. Retrieved from

Sofiana, L., Sumarni, S., & Ipa, M. (2011). Fingernail biting increase the risk of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infection in elementary school children. Health Science Indones Vol. 2, No. 2, December 2011 Risk Factors for Helminthiasis 81, 2(2), 81. Retrieved from

Sungkar, S., Ridwan, A. ., & Kusumowidagdo, G. (2017). The effect deworming using triple-dose albendazole on nutritional satus of chidren in Perobatang Village, Souhwest Sumba, Indonesia. Journal of Parasitology Research, 2017, (5476739). Retrieved from

Susilawati, N. M., & Smaut, R. K. (2017). Prevalensi Parasit Soil Transmitted Helminths pada Anak Usia 2-9 Tahun di Rukun Warga 04 Kelurahan Batakte Kecamatan Kupang Barat Kabupaten Kupang Tahun 2017. Jurnal Info Kesehatan, 15(1), 204–211. Retrieved from

Wardell, R., Lal, A. C. A. C. A., Summers, D., Llewellyn, S., Campbell, S. J., McCarthy, J., … Nery, S. V. (2017). An environmental assessment and risk map of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus distributions in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 1–19. Retrieved from

WHO. (2019). Neglected tropical diseases Basic laboratory methods in human parasitology (Examination of fecal and urine specimens). WHO-Kato Katz. Retrieved January 20, 2019, from

Wintoko, R. (2014). Relations aspects of personal hygiene and behavior aspects with worm eggs nail contamination risk at 4 th , 5 th And 6 th grade of state elementary school 2 raja basa districts Bandar Lampung academic year 2012 / 2013. Juke Unila, 4(7), 136–141. Retrieved from

Yuwono, N., Husada, D., & Basuki, S. (2019). Prevalence of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Among Elementary Children in Sorong District, West Papua. Indonesian Journal of Tropical and Infectious Disease, 7(4), 86.

Zulhifah, I. (2016). Relationship of Worm Infection with Hemoglobin Levels in SD INPRES NDONA 4, NDONA District, ENDE City. Thesis, Nusa Cendana University.