Depression, anxiety, and stress levels in Denpasar community during the pandemic of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

I Gusti Ngurah Bagus Rai Mulya Hartawan, I Gede Gita Sastrawan, Rovie Hikari Parastan, Luh Seri Ani


The Government of Indonesia has started to implement a Large-Scale Social Limitation (PSBB) in cities and provinces in Indonesia to prevent the increasing of COVID-19 transmission. The Denpasar city as one of the cities that implemented a similar system. This study was aims to provide an overview of the levels of depression, anxiety, and stress in the Denpasar community during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was an observational descriptive study with cross-sectional design. The data collection used Google forms that distributed online. There were 160 respondents participated in this study, dominated by women (56.9%), domiciled in South Denpasar (35.0%), living with family or relatives (85.6%), aged 18-25 years old (63.7%), had diploma or bachelor degree as their education background (55.0%), unmarried (66.3%), students (38.8%), and no income (44.4%). The results showed that respondents had 1-2 offspring (53.7%), did not experience layoffs (83.9%), and experienced a decrease in income (67.0%), dominant respondents experienced psychosocial disorders in the form of depression (51.2%) with a moderate degree (31.7%) and the anxiety (53.1%) with a mild degree (40.0%). Most respondents did not experience stress (53.1%). In conclusion, the characteristics of respondents' psychosocial disorders were moderate depression, mild anxiety, and did not stress.


Depression, Anxiety, Stress, Denpasar Community, COVID-19

Full Text:



Brooks, S., Webster, R., Smith, L., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N. and Rubin, G. (2020). The Psychological Impact Of Quarantine And How To Reduce It: Rapid Review Of The Evidence. The Lancet, 395(10227), 912-920.

Cascella, M., Rajnik, M., Cuomo, A., Dulebohn, S. and Di Napoli, R. (2020). Features, Evaluation and Treatment Coronavirus (COVID-19). 1st ed. Napoly: StatPearls Publishing

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020). How Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Spread. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2020].

Hall, R and Chapman, M. (2008). The 1995 Kikwit Ebola outbreak: lessons hospitals and physicians can apply to future viral epidemics. General Hospital Psychiatry, 30(5), 446-452.

Hiremath, P., Suhas Kowshik, C., Manjunath, M. and Shettar, M. (2020). COVID 19: Impact of lock-down on mental health and tips to overcome. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51, 102088.

Jeffrey S. Nevid, Spencer A. Rathus, Beverly Greene. (2005). Psikologi Abnormal. 5th ed. Jakarta: Erlangga.

Kaplan, Harold I., Saddock, B.J., Grabb, J. (2010). Sinopsis Psikiatri Ilmu Pengetahuan Prilaku Psikiatri Klinis. 2nd ed. Tangerang: Bina Rupa Aksara.

Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. (2020). Dashboard Data Kasus COVID-19. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2020].

Li, H., Liu, S., Yu, X., Tang, S. and Tang, C. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): current status and future perspectives. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 55(5), 105951.

Marlyono, S. (2008). Pengaruh Literasi I Tamher S, Noorkasiani. Flu Burung: Aspek Klinis dan Epidemiologis. Jakarta: Salemba.

Mufidi, A. and Nurwati, N. (2020). Pengaruh Kebijakan Pembatasan Sosial Berskala Besar (PSBB) Terhadap Tingkat Intensitas Mobilitas Penduduk Dan Mudik Lebaran. Bandung

Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Kedokteran Jiwa Indonesia (PDSKJI). (2020). Swaperiksa Web PDSKJI Per Tanggal 14 Mei 2020. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2020].

Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia (PDPI). (2020). Pneumonia Covid-19 Diagnosis & Pentalaksanaan di Indonesia. Jakarta: Perhimpunan Dokter Paru Indonesia (PDPI).

Pfefferbaum, B. and North, C. (2020). Mental Health and the Covid-19 Pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine, 1-3.

Rubin, G., Potts, H. and Michie, S. (2010). The impact of communications about swine flu (influenza A H1N1v) on public responses to the outbreak: results from 36 national telephone surveys in the UK. Health Technology Assessment, 14(34).

Sarner, M. (2020). Maintaining mental health in the time of coronavirus. New Scientist, 246(3279), 40-46.

Sim, K., Huak Chan, Y., Chong, P., Chua, H. and Wen Soon, S. (2010). Psychosocial and coping responses within the community health care setting towards a national outbreak of an infectious disease. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68(2), 195-202.

Stuart, G.W., (2013). Buku Saku Keperawatan Jiwa. 5th ed. Jakarta: ECG.

Van Bortel, T. Basnayake, A., Wurie, F., Jambai, M., Koroma, A., Muana, A., Hann, K., Eaton, J., Martin, S. and Nellums, L. (2016). Psychosocial effects of an Ebola outbreak at individual, community and international levels. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 94(3), 210-214.

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. and Ho, R. (2020). Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729.

Wang Z, Qiang W, Ke H. (2020). A Handbook of 2019-nCoV Pneumonia Control and Prevention. Hubei Science and Technologi Press. China: Wuhan Health Comitte

World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Situation Reports. [online] Available at: [Accessed 23 June 2020].

Xiang, Y., Yang, Y., Li, W., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q., Cheung, T. and Ng, C. (2020). Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(3), 228-229.