The effect of using the smartphone blue light filter feature on tear production

Ahmad Ikliluddin (1), Adey Rahmat Saputra (2)
(1) 1Ophthalmology Department Faculty of medicine and Health Science Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia,
(2) Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, Indonesia


Smartphones today have been used to support human activities. It makes the human eye always exposed to smartphone screens that use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that emit light with a blue electromagnetic spectrum known as blue light. The effect of blue light on human eyes is still being studied. This study aims to determine the effect of using smartphone blue light filter features on tear production. This was a quasi-experimental, pre-post study, involving 40 samples who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Subjects were asked to use a smartphone within 1 week without activating a blue light filter. After this, tear production was measured using the Schirmer test under topical anesthesia. Then, subjects were asked to use a smartphone again within 1 week by activating the blue light filter and being measured again using the Schirmer test under topical anesthesia. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS 25 software. There was a statistically significant (sig=0.000) difference in Schirmer test values before and after the usage of smartphone blue light filters. Each increase in the duration of smartphone usage for one minute will decrease Schirmer test results by 0.000625 mm, and so will the multiplication. The duration of smartphone usage has a 21.6% contribution of influence on the results of the Schirmer test. In conclusion, there is an effect of using the blue light filter feature on tear production between the use of a smartphone without activating the blue light filter with the use of a smartphone that activates the blue light filter feature.

Full text article

Generated from XML file


Behar-Cohen, F., Martinsons, C., Viénot, F., Zissis, G., Barlier-Salsi, A., Cesarini, J. P., Enouf, O., Garcia, M., Picaud, S., & Attia, D. (2011). Light-emitting diodes (LED) for domestic lighting: Any risks for the eye? Progress in Retinal and Eye Research, 30(4), 239–257.

Cheng, H. M., Chen, S. T., Liu, H. J., & Cheng, C. Y. (2014). Does blue light filter improve computer vision syndrome in patients with dry eye? Life Science Journal, 11(6), 612–615.

Downie, L. E., Busija, L., & Keller, P. R. (2018). Blue-light filtering intraocular lenses (IOLs) for protecting macular health. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2018(5).

Ide, T., Toda, I., Miki, E., & Tsubota, K. (2015). Effect of blue lightyreducing eye glasses on critical flicker frequency. Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology, 4(2), 80–85.

Kim, J., Hwang, Y., Kang, S., Kim, M., Kim, T. S., Kim, J., Seo, J., Ahn, H., Yoon, S., Yun, J. P., Lee, Y. L., Ham, H., Yu, H. G., & Park, S. K. (2016). Association between Exposure to Smartphones and Ocular Health in Adolescents. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 23(4), 269–276.

Lee, H. S., Cui, L., Li, Y., Choi, J. S., Choi, J. H., Li, Z., Kim, G. E., Choi, W., & Yoon, K. C. (2016). Influence of light emitting diode-derived blue light overexposure on mouse ocular surface. PLoS ONE, 11(8).

Lee, J.-B., Kim, S.-H., Lee, S.-C., Kim, H.-G., Ahn, H.-G., Li, Z., & Yoon, K. C. (2014). Blue light-induced oxidative stress in human corneal epithelial cells: protective effects of ethanol extracts of various medicinal plant mixtures. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science, 55(7), 4119–4127.

Lin, J. B., Gerratt, B. W., Bassi, C. J., & Apte, R. S. (2017). Short-wavelength light-blocking eyeglasses attenuate symptoms of eye fatigue. Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 58(1), 442–447.

Long, J., Cheung, R., Duong, S., Paynter, R., & Asper, L. (2017). Viewing distance and eyestrain symptoms with prolonged viewing of smartphones. Clinical and Experimental Optometry, 100(2), 133–137.

Machmud, K. (2018). The Smartphone Use in Indonesian Schools: The High School Students’ Perspectives. Journal of Arts and Humanities, 7(3), 33.

Marek, V., Mélik-Parsadaniantz, S., Villette, T., Montoya, F., Baudouin, C., Brignole-Baudouin, F., & Denoyer, A. (2018). Blue light phototoxicity toward human corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells in basal and hyperosmolar conditions. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 126, 27–40.

Marek, V., Reboussin, E., Dégardin-Chicaud, J., Charbonnier, A., Domínguez-López, A., Villette, T., Denoyer, A., Baudouin, C., Goazigo, A. R. Le, & Parsadaniantz, S. M. (2019). Implication of Melanopsin and Trigeminal Neural Pathways in Blue Light Photosensitivity in vivo. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13(MAY), 1–20.

Palavets, T., & Rosenfield, M. (2019). Blue-blocking Filters and Digital Eyestrain. Optometry and Vision Science, 96(1), 48–54.

Sheppard, A. L., & Wolffsohn, J. S. (2018). Digital eye strain: Prevalence, measurement and amelioration. BMJ Open Ophthalmology, 3(1).

Wong, N. A., & Bahmani, H. (2022). A review of the current state of research on artificial blue light safety as it applies to digital devices. Heliyon, 8(8), e10282.

Zhao, Z. C., Zhou, Y., Tan, G., & Li, J. (2018). Research progress about the effect and prevention of blue light on eyes. International Journal of Ophthalmology, 11(12), 1999–2003.


Ahmad Ikliluddin (Primary Contact)
Adey Rahmat Saputra
Ikliluddin, A., & Rahmat Saputra, A. (2024). The effect of using the smartphone blue light filter feature on tear production. Qanun Medika - Medical Journal Faculty of Medicine Muhammadiyah Surabaya, 8(02).

Article Details

No Related Submission Found