• Qaulan Sadida Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Sarlina K Tunliu Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Fatimah Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Novia Kartikasari Universitas Gadjah Mada
  • Debrinna T Asmaradhani Universitas Gadjah Mada



ADHD is a neurological developmental disorder that mostly affects children. Its characteristics in the form of inattention, disorganization and hyperactivity-impulsivity make it difficult for children to think and behave typically at home and at school. Researchers conducted a literature review on brain disorders in elementary school-aged children with ADHD to determine the level of damage and deviations that occurred. The method used was an integrative literature review using the PRISMA technique to extract 10 relevant articles from the Scopus and PubMed databases. The result is that the parts of the brain affected are the frontal, prefrontal, parietal, temporal, caudate, gyrus, cerebellum, and networks found in the brain such as the salience network, default mode network, and dorsal attention network. Elementary school age children (6 - 15 years) who have ADHD, regardless of sub-type, are prone to experiencing difficulties in sustained attention, response inhibition, memory and decision making. Parents and teachers are expected to help children's growth and development with disciplinary interventions such as understanding ADHD, collaboration with parties who frequently interact with children, consistent routines, a conducive environment, and positive reinforcement.


Abazari, K., Mahdavi, M., & Darvishi, A. (2017). Neuropsychological characteristics and theory of mind in ADHD and normal students. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, 19(1), 22–29.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders 5th ed. American Psychiatric Association.

Barbas, H., García-Cabezas, M. Á., & Zikopoulos, B. (2013). Frontal-thalamic circuits associated with language. Brain and Language, 126(1), 49–61.

Brown, F. C., Roth, R. M., & Katz, L. J. (2015). Allocentric but not egocentric visual memory difficulties in adults with ADHD may represent cognitive inefficiency. Psychiatry Research, 228(3), 649–658.

Callahan, J. L. (2010). Constructing a manuscript: Distinguishing integrative literature reviews and conceptual and theory articles. Human Resource Development Review, 9(3), 300–304.

Cao, M., Shu, N., Cao, Q., Wang, Y., & He, Y. (2014). Imaging functional and structural brain connectomics in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Neurobiology, 50(3), 1111–1123.

Catherine, Tg., Robert, N., Mala, Kk., Kanniammal, C., & Arullapan, J. (2019). Assessment of prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among schoolchildren in selected schools. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 61(3), 232.

CHADD. (2023). General prevalence of ADHD. Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD).

Curchack-Lichtin, J. T., Chacko, A., & Halperin, J. M. (2014). Changes in ADHD symptom endorsement: Preschool to school age. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(6), 993–1004.

Duffy, K. A., Rosch, K. S., Nebel, M. B., Seymour, K. E., Lindquist, M. A., Pekar, J. J., Mostofsky, S. H., & Cohen, J. R. (2021). Increased integration between default mode and task-relevant networks in children with ADHD is associated with impaired response control. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 50, 100980.

Elmaghraby, R., & Garayalde, S. (2022, June). What is ADHD? American Psychiatric Association.

Fateh, A. A., Huang, W., Hassan, M., Zhuang, Y., Lin, J., Luo, Y., Yang, B., & Zeng, H. (2023). Default mode network connectivity and social dysfunction in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 23(4), 100393.

Halassa, M. M. (2018). Fronto-thalamic Architectures for Cognitive Algorithms. Neuron, 98(2), 237–239.

Jiang, K., Yi, Y., Li, L., Li, H., Shen, H., Zhao, F., Xu, Y., & Zheng, A. (2019). Functional network connectivity changes in children with attention‐deficit hyperactivity disorder: A resting‐state fMRI study. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 78(1), 1–6.

Kóbor, A., Takács, Á., Bryce, D., Szűcs, D., Honbolygó, F., Nagy, P., & Csépe, V. (2015). Children with ADHD show impairments in multiple stages of information processing in a stroop task: An ERP study. Developmental Neuropsychology, 40(6), 329–347.

Konrad, K., & Eickhoff, S. B. (2010). Is the ADHD brain wired differently? A review on structural and functional connectivity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Human Brain Mapping, 31(6), 904–916.

Koutsoklenis, A., & Honkasilta, J. (2023). ADHD in the DSM-5-TR: What has changed and what has not. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 13, 1064141.

Krain, A. L., & Castellanos, F. X. (2006). Brain development and ADHD. Clinical Psychology Review, 26(4), 433–444.

Kristanto, Y. (2022). Identifying attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children and effective teaching strategies that develop their multiple intelligences. Edunesia: Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan, 4(1), 1–13.

Kumar, U., Arya, A., & Agarwal, V. (2017). Neural alterations in ADHD children as indicated by voxel-based cortical thickness and morphometry analysis. Brain and Development, 39(5), 403–410.

Luo, N., Luo, X., Zheng, S., Yao, D., Zhao, M., Cui, Y., Zhu, Y., Calhoun, V. D., Sun, L., & Sui, J. (2023). Aberrant brain dynamics and spectral power in children with ADHD and its subtypes. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(11), 2223–2234.

Machinskaya, R. I., Semenova, O. A., Absatova, K. A., & Sugrobova, G. A. (2014). Neurophysiological factors associated with cognitive deficits in children with ADHD symptoms: EEG and neuropsychological analysis. Psychology & Neuroscience, 7(4), 461–473.

Mowinckel, A. M., Alnæs, D., Pedersen, M. L., Ziegler, S., Fredriksen, M., Kaufmann, T., Sonuga-Barke, E., Endestad, T., Westlye, L. T., & Biele, G. (2017). Increased default-mode variability is related to reduced task-performance and is evident in adults with ADHD. NeuroImage: Clinical, 16, 369–382.

Mu, S., Wu, H., Zhang, J., & Chang, C. (2022). Structural Brain Changes and Associated Symptoms of ADHD Subtypes in Children. Cerebral Cortex, 32(6), 1152–1158.

Muya, A., Indra Yani, D., & Ropi, H. (2019). Quality of life school-age children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in SLB C Bandung. Asian Community Health Nursing Research, 34.

Nava, E., Flores-Lázaro, J. C., Sánchez, H., & García, F. (2022). Effects of comorbidity on executive functions among children with ADHD, finding trends. Applied Neuropsychology: Child, 1–13.

Pakaya, W. C., Sutadji, E., Dina, L. N. A. B., Rahma, F. I., Mashfufah, A., & Ayu, I. R. (2023). Metode Penelitian Pendidikan. Nawa Litera Publishing.

Pang, X., Wang, H., Dill, S.-E., Boswell, M., Pang, X., Singh, M., & Rozelle, S. (2021). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among elementary students in rural China: Prevalence, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Affective Disorders, 293, 484–491.

Poissant, H., Rapin, L., Chenail, S., & Mendrek, A. (2016). Forethought in Youth with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An fMRI Study of Sex-Specific Differences. Psychiatry Journal, 2016, 1–8.

Qiu, M., Ye, Z., Li, Q., Liu, G., Xie, B., & Wang, J. (2011). Changes of brain structure and function in ADHD children. Brain Topography, 24(3–4), 243–252.

Rennie, B., Beebe-Frankenberger, M., & Swanson, H. L. (2014). A longitudinal study of neuropsychological functioning and academic achievement in children with and without signs of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 36(6), 621–635.

Robinson, T., & Tripp, G. (2013). Neuropsychological functioning in children with ADHD: Symptom persistence is linked to poorer performance on measures of executive and nonexecutive function. Japanese Psychological Research, 55(2), 154–167.

Salari, N., Ghasemi, H., Abdoli, N., Rahmani, A., Shiri, M. H., Hashemian, A. H., Akbari, H., & Mohammadi, M. (2023). The global prevalence of ADHD in children and adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, 49(1), 48.

Saputro, D. (2009). ADHD (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Sagung Seto.

Tang, C., Wei, Y., Zhao, J., & Nie, J. (2018). Different Developmental Pattern of Brain Activities in ADHD: A Study of Resting-State fMRI. Developmental Neuroscience, 40(3), 246–257.

Tarle, S. J., Alderson, R. M., Patros, C. H. G., Arrington, E. F., & Roberts, D. K. (2019). Working memory and behavioral inhibition in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): An examination of varied central executive demands, construct overlap, and task impurity. Child Neuropsychology, 25(5), 664–687.

Ter-Stepanian, M., Grizenko, N., Wang, T., Fortier, M.-È., & Joober, R. (2022). 3.5 Math difficulties and ADHD: Understanding the executive function and clinical profiles. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 61(10), 229.

Wexler, B. E., & Kish, R. (2023). Using micro-cognition biomarkers of neurosystem dysfunction to define ADHD subtypes: A scalable digital path to diagnosis based on brain function [Preprint]. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology.

Wiguna, T., Wigantara, N. A., Ismail, R. I., Kaligis, F., Minayati, K., Bahana, R., & Dirgantoro, B. (2020). A four-step method for the development of an ADHD-VR digital game diagnostic tool prototype for children using a DL model. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11, 829.

Wu, Z.-M., Bralten, J., Cao, Q.-J., Hoogman, M., Zwiers, M. P., An, L., Sun, L., Yang, L., Zang, Y.-F., Franke, B., & Wang, Y.-F. (2017). White matter microstructural alterations in children with ADHD: Categorical and dimensional perspectives. Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(2), 572–580.

Wu, Z.-M., Wang, P., Liu, J., Liu, L., Cao, X.-L., Sun, L., Yang, L., Cao, Q.-J., Wang, Y.-F., & Yang, B.-R. (2023). The clinical, neuropsychological, and brain functional characteristics of the ADHD restrictive inattentive presentation. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 14, 1099882.

Yu, X., Yuan, B., Cao, Q., An, L., Wang, P., Vance, A., Silk, T. J., Zang, Y., Wang, Y., & Sun, L. (2016). Frequency-specific abnormalities in regional homogeneity among children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A resting-state fMRI study. Science Bulletin, 61(9), 682–692.