The association between demographic and attitude factors with the practice of malaria prevention among the rural community in Purworejo district, Indonesia

Farindira Vesti Rahmasari, Winny Setyonugroho, I Ketut Swarjana, Desto Arisandi, Tri Wulandari Kesetyaningsih

Abstract

Abstract

 

Malaria is one of the global health problems that is faced by many countries, including Indonesia. This study aimed to examine the association between demographic and attitude factors with malaria prevention in the rural areas of Purworejo District, Indonesia. A community survey was conducted in Purworejo District that involved 147 respondents by using simple random sampling to select the respondents. A questionnaire interview was used to collect data about demographic factors, attitudes, and malaria prevention practices. A Chi-square test was performed to examine the association between demographic and attitude factors with the practice of malaria prevention in the community. Among 147 respondents, 80 (54.4%) respondents conducted malaria prevention practice using bed mosquito net in their own houses. Demographic factors such as education level (p<0.001), occupation (p=0.016), and attitude factor (p=0.006) were significantly associated with the use of bed mosquito net for malaria prevention practice. Meanwhile, 63 (42.9%) respondents used ventilation mosquito net for malaria prevention practice. Demographic factors such as education level (p<0.001), age groups (p=0.005), occupation (p=0.002), and attitude factor (p=0.001) were associated significantly with the use of ventilation mosquito net for malaria prevention practice. Overall, malaria prevention by using both bed and ventilation mosquito nets were very low percentages.

 

Keywords             : Malaria, prevention practice, mosquito net, Indonesia

Correspondence   : farindira.vesti@gmail.com

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References

REFERENCES

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Baume, C. A., Reithinger, R., & Woldehanna, S. J. M. J. (2009). Factors associated with use and non-use of mosquito nets owned in Oromia and Amhara regional states, Ethiopia. Malaria Journal, 8(1), 264.

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Kumar, V., Rathi, A., Lal, P., Goel, S. K. J. J. o. f. m., & care, p. (2018). Malaria and dengue: Knowledge, attitude, practice, and effect of sensitization workshop among school teachers as health educators. Journal of Familly Medicine and Primary Care, 7(6), 1368.

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Lover, A. A., Sutton, B. A., Asy, A. J., & Wilder-Smith, A. J. M. j. (2011). An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage. Malaria Journal, 10(1), 199.

Masum, H., Shah, R., Schroeder, K., Daar, A. S., Singer, P. A. J. B. i. h., & rights, h. (2010). Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 10(1), 1-6.

Monasch, R., Reinisch, A., Steketee, R. W., Korenromp, E. L., Alnwick, D., Bergevin, Y. J. T. A. j. o. t. m., & hygiene. (2004). Child coverage with mosquito nets and malaria treatment from population-based surveys in African countries: a baseline for monitoring progress in roll back malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 71(2_suppl), 232-238.

Murhandarwati, E. E. H., Fuad, A., Wijayanti, M. A., Bia, M. B., Widartono, B. S., Lobo, N. F., & Hawley, W. A. J. M. j. (2015). Change of strategy is required for malaria elimination: a case study in Purworejo District, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Malaria Journal, 14(1), 318.

Mursid, R., Sudibyakto, H., Gunawan, T., Sutomo, A., & Windraswara, R. (2015). Global and micro climate change related to the dynamics of Anopheles sp. in malaria-endemic area Purworejo City, Central Java. International Journal Science Basic Research, 22(1).

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Ndjinga, J. K., & Minakawa, N. J. M. j. (2010). The importance of education to increase the use of bed nets in villages outside of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Malaria Journal, 9(1), 279.

Noor, A. M., Kirui, V. C., Brooker, S. J., & Snow, R. W. J. B. P. H. (2009). The use of insecticide treated nets by age: implications for universal coverage in Africa. BMC Public Health, 9(1), 369.

Noor, A. M., Omumbo, J. A., Amin, A. A., Zurovac, D., & Snow, R. W. (2006). Wealth, mother's education and physical access as determinants of retail sector net use in rural Kenya. Malaria Journal, 5(1), 5.

Ordinioha, B. (2007). The use of insecticide-treated bed net in a semi-urban community in south-south, Nigeria. Niger J Med, 16(3), 223-226.

Pinchoff, J., Hamapumbu, H., Kobayashi, T., Simubali, L., Stevenson, J. C., Norris, D. E., . . . hygiene. (2015). Factors associated with sustained use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets following a reduction in malaria transmission in southern Zambia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, 93(5), 954-960.

Pulford, J., Hetzel, M. W., Bryant, M., Siba, P. M., & Mueller, I. J. M. j. (2011). Reported reasons for not using a mosquito net when one is available: a review of the published literature. Malaria Journal, 10(1), 83.

Rejeki, D. S. S., Fuad, A., Widartono, B. S., Murhandarwati, E. E. H., & Kusnanto, H. J. M. j. (2019). Spatiotemporal patterns of malaria at cross-boundaries area in Menoreh Hills, Java, Indonesia. Malaria Journal 18(1), 80.

Sanjana, P., Barcus, M. J., Bangs, M. J., Ompusunggu, S., Elyazar, I., Marwoto, H., . . . hygiene. (2006). Survey of community knowledge, attitudes, and practices during a malaria epidemic in central Java, Indonesia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 75(5), 783-789.

Setiyaningsih, R., Trapsilowati, W., Mujiyono, M., & Lasmiati, L. (2018). Pengendalian Vektor Malaria di Daerah Endemis Kabupaten Purworejo, Indonesia. Balaba: Jurnal Litbang Pengendalian Penyakit Bersumber Binatang Banjarnegara, 1-12.

Sitohang, V., Sariwati, E., Fajariyani, S. B., Hwang, D., Kurnia, B., Hapsari, R. K., . . . Hawley, W. A. J. M. j. (2018). Malaria elimination in Indonesia: halfway there. The Lancet Global Health, 6(6), e604-e606.

Tadesse, F., Fogarty, A. W., & Deressa, W. (2018). Prevalence and associated risk factors of malaria among adults in East Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 25.

Talipouo, A., Ngadjeu, C. S., Doumbe-Belisse, P., Djamouko-Djonkam, L., Sonhafouo-Chiana, N., Kopya, E., . . . Kekeunou, S. J. M. j. (2019). Malaria prevention in the city of Yaoundé: knowledge and practices of urban dwellers. Malaria Journal, 18(1), 167.

Trapsilowati, W., Pujiyanti, A., & Wigati, W. (2018). Gambaran Pengetahuan, Sikap dan Tindakan Masyarakat pada Peningkatan Kasus Malaria di Kabupaten Purworejo Tahun 2015. J Aspirator, 10(1), 9-14.

WHO. (2010). World Malaria Report 2009.

WHO. (2016). World malaria report 2015: World Health Organization.

WHO. (2018). World Malaria Report 2018. Geneva: World Health Organization. 3, 1-210.

WHO. (2019). World Malaria Report: 2019. (1), 1-232.

Xu, J.-w., Liao, Y.-m., Liu, H., Nie, R.-h., & Havumaki, J. J. P. O. (2014). Use of bed nets and factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo ethnic minority in Southern China. Plos One Journal, 9(7), e103780.

Yasuoka, J., Kikuchi, K., Nanishi, K., Ly, P., Thavrin, B., Omatsu, T., & Mizutani, T. J. B. p. h. (2018). Malaria knowledge, preventive actions, and treatment-seeking behavior among ethnic minorities in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia: a community-based cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1206.

Yitayew, A. E., Enyew, H. D., Goshu, Y. A. J. M. R., & Treatment. (2018). Utilization and Associated Factors of Insecticide Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic of Addis Zemen Hospital, North-Western Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Study. Hindawi Malaria Research and Treatment, 2018.

REFERENCES

Alelign, A., & Petros, B. (2018). Knowledge, attitudes and practices of malaria transmission and preventive measures in Woreta town, Northwest Ethiopia. BMC, 11(1), 491.

Arroz, J. A., Candrinho, B. N., Mussambala, F., Chande, M., Mendis, C., Dias, S., & Maria do Rosario, O. M. J. B. h. s. r. (2019). WhatsApp: a supplementary tool for improving bed nets universal coverage campaign in Mozambique. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), 1-7.

Asante, F. A., & Asenso-Okyere, K. (2003). Economic burden of malaria in Ghana. A Technical Report Submitted to the World Health Organisation (WHO), African Regional Office (AFRO)., 1-81.

Assan, A., Takian, A., Hanafi-Bojd, A. A., Rahimiforoushani, A., & Nematolahi, S. J. J. o. P. H. P. (2017). Knowledge, attitude, and practice about malaria: Socio-demographic implications for malaria control in rural Ghana. J Public Health Policy, 38(4), 445-463. doi: 10.1057/s41271-017-0088-6

B2P2VRP. (2015). Laporan rikhus vektora Propinsi Jawa Tengah, salatiga.

Bachou, H., Tylleskär, T., Kaddu-Mulindwa, D. H., & Tumwine, J. K. J. B. i. d. (2006). Bacteraemia among severely malnourished children infected and uninfected with the human immunodeficiency virus-1 in Kampala, Uganda. BMC Infectious Disease, 6(1), 160.

Batega, D. W. (2004). Knowledge attitudes and practices about malaria treatment and prevention in Uganda. Final Report prepared for Ministry of Health in part of Health Communication Partnership based at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs.

Baume, C. A., Reithinger, R., & Woldehanna, S. J. M. J. (2009). Factors associated with use and non-use of mosquito nets owned in Oromia and Amhara regional states, Ethiopia. Malaria Journal, 8(1), 264.

Bhatt, S., Weiss, D., Cameron, E., Bisanzio, D., Mappin, B., Dalrymple, U., . . . Eckhoff, P. J. N. (2015). The effect of malaria control on Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 2000 and 2015. Nature, 526(7572), 207-211.

Bloom, B. S. J. N. Y. M. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives. Vol. 1: Cognitive domain. 20, 24.

Dinas Kesehatan Purworejo. (2019). Laporan Bulanan Malaria Dinkes Kabupaten Purworejo.

Eisele, T. P., Keating, J., Littrell, M., Larsen, D., Macintyre, K. J. T. A. j. o. t. m., & hygiene. (2009). Assessment of insecticide-treated bednet use among children and pregnant women across 15 countries using standardized national surveys. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 80(2), 209-214.

Eisele, T. P., Larsen, D., & Steketee, R. W. J. I. j. o. e. (2010). Protective efficacy of interventions for preventing malaria mortality in children in Plasmodium falciparum endemic areas. International Journalof Epidemiology, 39(suppl_1), i88-i101.

Gamble, C., Ekwaru, P. J., Garner, P., & Ter Kuile, F. O. J. P. M. (2007). Insecticide-treated nets for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. PLoS Med 4(3):e107. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0040107

García-Basteiro, A. L., Schwabe, C., Aragon, C., Baltazar, G., Rehman, A. M., Matias, A., . . . Kleinschmidt, I. J. M. j. (2011). Determinants of bed net use in children under five and household bed net ownership on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Malaria Journal, 10(1), 179.

Hasyim, H., Dale, P., Groneberg, D. A., Kuch, U., & Müller, R. (2019). Social determinants of malaria in an endemic area of Indonesia. Malaria Journal, 18(1), 134.

Hetzel, M. W., Gideon, G., Lote, N., Makita, L., Siba, P. M., & Mueller, I. J. M. j. (2012). Ownership and usage of mosquito nets after four years of large-scale free distribution in Papua New Guinea. Malaria Journal, 11(1), 192.

Iliyasu, Z., Babashani, M., Abubakar, I. S., Salahudeen, A. A., & Aliyu, M. H. J. A. t. (2013). Clinical burden and correlates of HIV and malaria co-infection, in northwest Nigeria. Acta Tropica, 128(3), 630-635.

Indonesia, M. (2016). The desk review malaria programe review 2016. 1-74.

Ipa, M., Widawati, M., Laksono, A. D., Kusrini, I., & Dhewantara, P. W. J. P. O. (2020). Variation of preventive practices and its association with malaria infection in eastern Indonesia: Findings from community-based survey. Plos One Journal, 15(5), e0232909.

Kementrian Kesehatan RI. (2009). SK no 293/MENKES/SK/IV/2009.

Kementrian Kesehatan RI. (2017). Buku Saku Menuju Eliminasi Malaria. Jakarta : Ministry of Health. 1-30.

Kementrian Kesehatan RI. (2020). Situasi Malaria di Indonesia Tahun 2019.

Koenker, H., & Kilian, A. J. P. O. (2014). Recalculating the net use gap: a multi-country comparison of ITN use versus ITN access. Plos One Journal, 9(5), e97496.

Kumar, V., Rathi, A., Lal, P., Goel, S. K. J. J. o. f. m., & care, p. (2018). Malaria and dengue: Knowledge, attitude, practice, and effect of sensitization workshop among school teachers as health educators. Journal of Familly Medicine and Primary Care, 7(6), 1368.

Lengeler, C. J. C. d. o. s. r. (2004). Insecticide‐treated bed nets and curtains for preventing malaria. Cochrane (2). doi:https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000363.pub2

Liu, H., Xu, J.-w., Guo, X.-r., Havumaki, J., Lin, Y.-x., Yu, G.-c., & Zhou, D.-l. J. M. j. (2015). Coverage, use and maintenance of bed nets and related influence factors in Kachin Special Region II, northeastern Myanmar. Malaria Journal, 14(1), 212.

Lover, A. A., Sutton, B. A., Asy, A. J., & Wilder-Smith, A. J. M. j. (2011). An exploratory study of treated-bed nets in Timor-Leste: patterns of intended and alternative usage. Malaria Journal, 10(1), 199.

Masum, H., Shah, R., Schroeder, K., Daar, A. S., Singer, P. A. J. B. i. h., & rights, h. (2010). Africa's largest long-lasting insecticide-treated net producer: lessons from A to Z Textiles. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 10(1), 1-6.

Monasch, R., Reinisch, A., Steketee, R. W., Korenromp, E. L., Alnwick, D., Bergevin, Y. J. T. A. j. o. t. m., & hygiene. (2004). Child coverage with mosquito nets and malaria treatment from population-based surveys in African countries: a baseline for monitoring progress in roll back malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 71(2_suppl), 232-238.

Murhandarwati, E. E. H., Fuad, A., Wijayanti, M. A., Bia, M. B., Widartono, B. S., Lobo, N. F., & Hawley, W. A. J. M. j. (2015). Change of strategy is required for malaria elimination: a case study in Purworejo District, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Malaria Journal, 14(1), 318.

Mursid, R., Sudibyakto, H., Gunawan, T., Sutomo, A., & Windraswara, R. (2015). Global and micro climate change related to the dynamics of Anopheles sp. in malaria-endemic area Purworejo City, Central Java. International Journal Science Basic Research, 22(1).

N Ng'ang'a, P., Jayasinghe, G., Kimani, V., Shililu, J., Kabutha, C., Kabuage, L., . . . Mutero, C. J. M. j. (2009). Bed net use and associated factors in a rice farming community in Central Kenya. Malaria Journal, 8(1), 1-8.

Ndjinga, J. K., & Minakawa, N. J. M. j. (2010). The importance of education to increase the use of bed nets in villages outside of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Malaria Journal, 9(1), 279.

Noor, A. M., Kirui, V. C., Brooker, S. J., & Snow, R. W. J. B. P. H. (2009). The use of insecticide treated nets by age: implications for universal coverage in Africa. BMC Public Health, 9(1), 369.

Noor, A. M., Omumbo, J. A., Amin, A. A., Zurovac, D., & Snow, R. W. (2006). Wealth, mother's education and physical access as determinants of retail sector net use in rural Kenya. Malaria Journal, 5(1), 5.

Ordinioha, B. (2007). The use of insecticide-treated bed net in a semi-urban community in south-south, Nigeria. Niger J Med, 16(3), 223-226.

Pinchoff, J., Hamapumbu, H., Kobayashi, T., Simubali, L., Stevenson, J. C., Norris, D. E., . . . hygiene. (2015). Factors associated with sustained use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets following a reduction in malaria transmission in southern Zambia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg, 93(5), 954-960.

Pulford, J., Hetzel, M. W., Bryant, M., Siba, P. M., & Mueller, I. J. M. j. (2011). Reported reasons for not using a mosquito net when one is available: a review of the published literature. Malaria Journal, 10(1), 83.

Rejeki, D. S. S., Fuad, A., Widartono, B. S., Murhandarwati, E. E. H., & Kusnanto, H. J. M. j. (2019). Spatiotemporal patterns of malaria at cross-boundaries area in Menoreh Hills, Java, Indonesia. Malaria Journal 18(1), 80.

Sanjana, P., Barcus, M. J., Bangs, M. J., Ompusunggu, S., Elyazar, I., Marwoto, H., . . . hygiene. (2006). Survey of community knowledge, attitudes, and practices during a malaria epidemic in central Java, Indonesia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 75(5), 783-789.

Setiyaningsih, R., Trapsilowati, W., Mujiyono, M., & Lasmiati, L. (2018). Pengendalian Vektor Malaria di Daerah Endemis Kabupaten Purworejo, Indonesia. Balaba: Jurnal Litbang Pengendalian Penyakit Bersumber Binatang Banjarnegara, 1-12.

Sitohang, V., Sariwati, E., Fajariyani, S. B., Hwang, D., Kurnia, B., Hapsari, R. K., . . . Hawley, W. A. J. M. j. (2018). Malaria elimination in Indonesia: halfway there. The Lancet Global Health, 6(6), e604-e606.

Tadesse, F., Fogarty, A. W., & Deressa, W. (2018). Prevalence and associated risk factors of malaria among adults in East Shewa Zone of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 25.

Talipouo, A., Ngadjeu, C. S., Doumbe-Belisse, P., Djamouko-Djonkam, L., Sonhafouo-Chiana, N., Kopya, E., . . . Kekeunou, S. J. M. j. (2019). Malaria prevention in the city of Yaoundé: knowledge and practices of urban dwellers. Malaria Journal, 18(1), 167.

Trapsilowati, W., Pujiyanti, A., & Wigati, W. (2018). Gambaran Pengetahuan, Sikap dan Tindakan Masyarakat pada Peningkatan Kasus Malaria di Kabupaten Purworejo Tahun 2015. J Aspirator, 10(1), 9-14.

WHO. (2010). World Malaria Report 2009.

WHO. (2016). World malaria report 2015: World Health Organization.

WHO. (2018). World Malaria Report 2018. Geneva: World Health Organization. 3, 1-210.

WHO. (2019). World Malaria Report: 2019. (1), 1-232.

Xu, J.-w., Liao, Y.-m., Liu, H., Nie, R.-h., & Havumaki, J. J. P. O. (2014). Use of bed nets and factors that influence bed net use among Jinuo ethnic minority in Southern China. Plos One Journal, 9(7), e103780.

Yasuoka, J., Kikuchi, K., Nanishi, K., Ly, P., Thavrin, B., Omatsu, T., & Mizutani, T. J. B. p. h. (2018). Malaria knowledge, preventive actions, and treatment-seeking behavior among ethnic minorities in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia: a community-based cross-sectional survey. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1206.

Yitayew, A. E., Enyew, H. D., Goshu, Y. A. J. M. R., & Treatment. (2018). Utilization and Associated Factors of Insecticide Treated Bed Net among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic of Addis Zemen Hospital, North-Western Ethiopia: An Institutional Based Study. Hindawi Malaria Research and Treatment, 2018.


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30651/jqm.v5i1.5416