Multiple Large Atrial Thrombus Due To Rheumatic Heart Disease And Present Of Atrial Fibrillation With No Sign Of Stroke: How Is It Possible?

Ricky Indra Alfaray, Deisha Laksmitha Ayomi, Yan Efrata Sembiring

Abstract

ABSTRACT 

Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia associated with stroke and in the rheumatic heart disease patient’s atrial fibrillation can easily cause thromboembolism. Thromboembolism is the major complication also in patients of mitral stenosis with atrial fibrillation. A 54-year-old woman with uncontrollable movements in the right arm, stomach, right leg and painful swelling at right ankle joint was admitted to the emergency department. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed rheumatic heart disease affecting two valves and thrombus in left atrial extending towards left atrial appendage. Heart rate was 120 beats per minute. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A patient has undergone mitral and aortic valves replacement surgery and left atrial thrombus evacuation. Despite the involvement of two heart valves and the presence of large thrombus, the patient did not show any sign of brain infarction. This is a contradiction with a theory which implies that atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia associated with stroke and in the rheumatic heart disease patient’s atrial fibrillation can easily cause thromboembolism and become stroke. This study evaluates many factors founded in the patient that make this anomaly may happen.

Keywords                   : atrial fibrillation, rheumatic heart disease, thromboembolism stroke

Correspondence to      : rickyindraalfaray@gmail.com

ABSTRAK 

Atrial fibrilasi merupakan jenis aritmia yang berkaitan erat dengan stroke dan cenderung menyebabkan thromboembolism. Thromboembolism merupakan komplikasi mayor dari mitral stenosis dengan atrial fibrilasi. Seorang wanita berusia 54 tahun masuk ke unit gawat darurat dengan keluhan utama gerakan tak terkendali pada lengan kanan, perut, kaki kanan, serta bengkak yang menyakitkan di sendi pergelangan kaki kanan. Echocardiogram transesophageal menunjukan gambaran penyakit jantung rematik pada dua katup dan trombus di atrium kiri meluas menuju valve atrium kiri. Detak jantung 120 kali per menit. EKG menunjukkan fibrilasi atrium. Pasien menjalani operasi penggantian katup mitral dan aorta serta evakuasi trombus pada atrium. Meskipun terdapat abnormalitas pada dua katup jantung ditambah dengan ditemukan adanya trombus besar pada atrium, pasien tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda infark otak. Ini bertentangan dengan teori yang mengimplikasikan bahwa atrial fibrilasi adalah aritmia paling umum yang berhubungan dengan stroke dan pada penyakit jantung reumatik. Pasien dengan fibrilasi atrium dapat dengan mudah terjadi tromboemboli hingga bermanifestasi stroke. Studi ini mengevaluasi berbagai faktor yang memungkinkan anomali kasus seperti ini dapat terjadi.

Kata kunci                  : fibrilasi atrium, penyakit jantung rematik, stroke thromboemboli

Korespondensi             : rickyindraalfaray@gmail.com

 

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30651/jqm.v3i2.2327