Physical Exercise and Bone Health

Gadis Meinar Sari

Abstract

ABSTRACT

Exercise was a planned and structured physical activity in which there was a movement repetition to maintain or enhance one or more components of physical fitness. The physical exercise on biological functions gave positive effects such as improving, but in certain circumstances, it could also give a negative effect such as inhibiting or disturbing the level of individual, system, cell, and molecular. Likewise the effect of physical exercise on bones, many factors affected bone both positively and negatively, among others; the dose of physical exercise which included frequency, intensity, type and time. The dosage of physical exercise was individual on each person. Some studies found that moderate intensity physical exercise provided positive benefits on bones. One of them was affecting the process of proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast, which was one of bone cells that had a function to form bone matrix. Moderate intensity physical exercise combined with salmon calcitonin would increase mouse bone density. Moderate-speed walking exercise would cause changes in IL-6 serum levels which had a role in the process of stem cell differentiation into osteoprogenitor and directly affected adult osteoblasts, whereas changes in PTH serum levels in the sub-acute phase of exercise played a role in the positive uncoupling process of bone remodeling directly.

Keywords                   : moderate intensity physical exercise, bone health

Correspondence to      : gadis-m-s@fk.unair.ac.id

 

ABSTRAK

Olahraga adalah latihan fisik yang merupakan bagian dari aktivitas fisik yang terencana, terstruktur, terdapat repetisi gerakan, dan mempunyai tujuan mempertahankan atau meningkatkan salah satu atau lebih komponen kebugaran fisik. Pengaruh latihan fisik terhadap fungsi biologis dapat memberi pengaruh positif yaitu bersifat memperbaiki, akan tetapi pada keadaan tertentu dapat pula memberikan pengaruh negatif yaitu menghambat atau mengganggu baik pada tingkat individu, sistem, sel maupun molekul. Demikian juga pengaruh latihan fisik terhadap tulang, banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi tulang secara positif maupun negatif, antara lain adalah dosis latihan fisik yang meliputi frekuensi, intensitas, jenis dan waktu melakukan latihan fisik. Dosis latihan fisik bersifat individual pada setiap orang. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa latihan fisik intensitas sedang memberikan manfaat positif pada tulang. Antara lain mempengaruhi proses proliferasi dan diferensiasi sel osteoblas yaitu salah satu sel tulang yang berfungsi membentuk matriks tulang. Latihan fisik intensitas sedang dikombinasikan dengan salmon kalsitonin akan meningkatkan kepadatan tulang tikus. Latihan jalan dengan kecepatan sedang akan menyebabkan perubahan kadar IL-6 serum yang berperan pada proses diferensiasi stem cell menjadi osteoprogenitor dan secara langsung berpengaruh pada osteoblas dewasa, sedangkan perubahan kadar PTH serum pada fase subakut latihan berperan pada proses positive uncoupling remodeling tulang secara langsung.

Kata kunci                  : latihan fisik intensitas sedang, kesehatan tulang

Korespondensi            : gadis-m-s@fk.unair.ac.id

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30651/jqm.v3i1.2305