Analysis of the relationship between using personal protective equipment (PPE) masks on the incidence of respiratory symptoms disorders of online motorcycle taxis drivers in Malang

Jeremi Setiawan, Hanna Cakrawati, Anung Putri Illahika

Abstract

ABSTRACT

 

Health problems that are often encountered due to work are respiratory disorders that cause premature death every year. Exposure to pollution is harmful to health, and chronic exposure causes lung cancer and COPD. The use of masks is an alternative in reducing exposure to pollution. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the habit of wearing masks on the incidence of respiratory symptoms disorder of online motorcycle taxi drivers in Malang. This study was an analytic observation with a cross-sectional design. Samples were determined using the comparative bivariate analytical sample formula. The data were analyzed using a univariate test and bivariate analysis with a chi-square test. This study showed a significant relationship between the habit of wearing a mask with p score = 0.015 (p<0,05), changing time with p score = 0.004 (p<0,05), and the type of mask on respiratory symptoms disorders with p score = 0.006 (p<0,05). The results obtained regarding the description of the habit of using masks, the results of the method of using masks were mainly in the good category. In conclusion, there is a significant relationship between the habit of wearing masks and the incidence of respiratory symptoms disorders among online motorcycle taxi drivers in Malang.

 

Keywords             : Habits, masks, symptoms of respiratory disorders, online motorcycle taxis

Correspondence   : Jeremisetiawan@webmail.umm.ac.id

Keywords

Habits, masks, symptoms of respiratory disorders, online motorcycle taxis

Full Text:

PDF PDF

References

Barbosa, M. H., & Graziano, K. U. (2006). Influence of wearing time on efficacy of disposable surgical masks as microbial barrier. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 37(3). https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822006000300003

Brooks, J. T., & Butler, J. C. (2021). Effectiveness of Mask Wearing to Control Community Spread of SARS-CoV-2. JAMA, 325(10), 998–999. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMA.2021.1505

Chughtai, A. A., Stelzer-Braid, S., Rawlinson, W., Pontivivo, G., Wang, Q., Pan, Y., Zhang, D., Zhang, Y., Li, L., & MacIntyre, C. R. (2019). Contamination by respiratory viruses on outer surface of medical masks used by hospital healthcare workers. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4109-x

Damayanti, T., Pradipta, J., & Susanto, A. (2019). RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AND LUNG FUNCTION AMONG ONLINE MOTORCYCLE TAXI DRIVERS. Chest, 156(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2019.08.821

Dimakakou, E., Johnston, H. J., Streftaris, G., & Cherrie, J. W. (2018). Exposure to environmental and occupational particulate air pollution as a potential contributor to neurodegeneration and diabetes: A systematic review of epidemiological research. In International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (Vol. 15, Issue 8). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081704

Dwirusman, C. G. (2020). Peran Dan Efektivitas Masker Dalam Pencegahan Penularan Corona Virus Disease 2019 (Covid-19). Jurnal Medika Hutama, 2(1).

Fischer, E. P., Fischer, M. C., Grass, D., Henrion, I., Warren, W. S., & Westman, E. (2020). Low-cost measurement of face mask efficacy for filtering expelled droplets during speech. Science Advances, 6(36). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd3083

Hansstein, F. V., & Echegaray, F. (2018). Exploring motivations behind pollution-mask use in a sample of young adults in urban China. Globalization and Health, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-018-0441-y

Hapsari, K. R., & Munawi, A. (2021). Pemilihan Masker Kain dalam Mencegah Penularan Virus Covid-19. Jurnal NOE, 4(01), 2355–6684. https://ojs.unpkediri.ac.id/index.php/noe

Kemenkes. (2020). Penggunaan Alat Pelindungan Wabah COVID-19. Penggunaan Alat Pelindungan Wabah COVID-19, April, 1–27.

Kemenkes RI. (2020). Standar Alat Pelindung Diri (APD). Archipel, 13(1), 15–20. https://farmalkes.kemkes.go.id/unduh/standar-alat-pelindung-diri-apd-dalam-manajemen-penanganan-covid-19/

Kobayashi, L. M., Marins, B. R., Costa, P. C. D. S., Perazzo, H., & Castro, R. (2020). Extended use or reuse of N95 respirators during COVID-19 pandemic: An overview of national regulatory authority recommendations. Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, 41(11), 1. https://doi.org/10.1017/ICE.2020.173

Lawin, H., Fanou, L. A., Hinson, A. V., Stolbrink, M., Houngbegnon, P., Kedote, N. M., Fayomi, B., Kagima, J., Katoto, P., Ouendo, E. M. D., & Mortimer, K. (2018). Health risks associated with occupational exposure to ambient air pollution in commercial drivers: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092039

Lawin, H., Fanou, L. A., Kpangon, A. A., Hinson, A. V., Balmes, J., Wanjiku, J., Ale, B. M., & Fayomi, B. (2018). Comparison of motorcycle taxi driver’s respiratory health using an air quality standard for carbon monoxide in ambient air: A pilot survey in Nenin. Pan African Medical Journal, 30. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.30.113.14975

Machida, M., Nakamura, I., Saito, R., Nakaya, T., Hanibuchi, T., Takamiya, T., Odagiri, Y., Fukushima, N., Kikuchi, H., Amagasa, S., Kojima, T., Watanabe, H., & Inoue, S. (2020). Incorrect use of face masks during the current COVID-19 pandemic among the general public in Japan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(18). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186484

MacIntyre, C. R., Seale, H., Dung, T. C., Hien, N. T., Nga, P. T., Chughtai, A. A., Rahman, B., Dwyer, D. E., & Wang, Q. (2015). A cluster randomised trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers. BMJ Open, 5(4). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006577

Muhith, A. et al. (2018). Penggunaan Alat Pelindung Diri (APD) Masker Dengan Gangguan Saluran Pernapasan Pada Pekerja di PT. Bokormas Kota Mojokerto. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, 3(1).

Muthia, A., & Hendrawan, A. (2017). Perancangan Masker Sebagai Alat Pelindung Diri Bagi Pengendara Sepeda Motor Wanita. Atrat, 5(3).

Organization, I. L. (2020). Kembali bekerja dengan aman. www.ilo.org/publns.

Sasikumar, S., Maheshkumar, K., Dilara, K., & Padmavathi, R. (2020). Assessment of pulmonary functions among traffic police personnel in Chennai city - A comparative cross-sectional study. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 9(7). https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1126_19

Shakya, K. M., Noyes, A., Kallin, R., & Peltier, R. E. (2017). Evaluating the efficacy of cloth facemasks in reducing particulate matter exposure. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, 27(3). https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2016.42

Theopilus, Y., Yogasara, T., Theresia, C., & Octavia, J. R. (2020). Analisis Risiko Produk Alat Pelindung Diri (APD) Pencegah Penularan COVID-19 untuk Pekerja Informal di Indonesia. Jurnal Rekayasa Sistem Industri, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.26593/jrsi.v9i2.4002.115-134

WHO. (2021, September 22). Ambient (outdoor) air pollution. News. https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/ambient-(outdoor)-air-quality-and-health

Zhong, J., Hood, C., Johnson, K., Stocker, J., Handley, J., Wolstencroft, M., Mazzeo, A., Cai, X., & Bloss, W. J. (2021). Using task farming to optimise a street-scale resolution air quality model of the west midlands (UK). Atmosphere, 12(8). https://doi.org/10.3390/ATMOS12080983


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30651/jqm.v6i1.10267