Studi Epidemiologi Fraktur Vertebra di RSUD Dr.Soetomo Surabaya Pada Tahun 2013-2017

Lukas Widhiyanto, I Ketut Martiana, Primadenny Ariesa Airlangga, Donny Permana




The incidence of spinal trauma in the world is 0.019-0.088% per year. However, the epidemiological data from each country varies according to the specificities of each country. Until now, there have been no reports of epidemiological research for vertebral trauma in Indonesia. This research is a descriptive analytic study. The sample of this study were all patients with vertebral fractures who entered the Dr. Soetomo Hospital in 2013-2017. The data were obtained through medical records and electronic data in hospital databases. The data are displayed in tables and graphs and comparative analysis of variables is carried out. Based on data from 2014-2017, there were a total of 442 patients with vertebral fractures, with male and female ratio of 3.3: 1. The mean age of patients was 43.6 year. The causes of vertebral fractures are due to fall from altitude (38%), traffic accidents (34%), and direct impact / hit burden (10%). Based on fracture level, most fractures were at the lumbar level (153 patients, 34,6%). At the lumbar level, the most fracture subtypes were type A with a percentage of 91.5% and the most mechanism of injury was due to falling from a height. Based on the fracture subtype, type A (compression or burst) fracture is the most common type of fracture. Lumbar vertebral fracture is the most fractured in vertebral fractures. The most common cause of fracture in the vertebrae is trauma with great energy due to falling from a height.

Keywords: Epidemiology, vertebral fractures, spinal trauma

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Insiden trauma spinal di dunia tercatat sebesar 0,019% hingga 0,088% per tahun, namun data epidemiologi dari masing-masing negara adalah berbeda-beda, sesuai dengan kekhususan dari masing-masing negara. Hingga saat ini, belum terdapat laporan penelitian epidemiologi untuk trauma vertebra di Indonesia. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif analitik. Sampel penelitian ini adalah seluruh pasien dengan fraktur vertebra yang masuk di RS Dr. Soetomo Surabaya pada tahun 2013-2017. Data penelitian ini didapatkan melalui data berkas rekam medis dan database elektronik rumah sakit. Data ditampilkan dalam bentuk tabel dan grafik serta dilakukan analisa komparasi dari variabel. Berdasarkan data tahun 2014-2017 didapatkan total 442 pasien dengan fraktur vertebra, dengan perbandingan laki-laki dan perempuan sebesar 3,3:1.  Rerata usia pasien adalah 43,6 tahun. Penyebab fraktur vertebra adalah akibat jatuh dari ketinggian (38%), kecelakaan lalu lintas (34%), dan benturan langsung/ tertimpa beban (10%). Berdasarkan level fraktur, fraktur terbanyak sejumlah 153 pasien (34,6%) pada level lumbal. Pada level lumbal didapatkan subtIpe fraktur terbanyak adalah tipe A dengan persentase 91,5% dan mechanism of injury terbanyak adalah akibat jatuh dari ketinggian. Berdasarkan subtipe frakturnya, fraktur tipe A (kompresi atau burst) merupakan jenis fraktur yang paling banyak terjadi. Fraktur vertebra lumbal adalah fraktur terbanyak pada kasus fraktur pada vertebra. Penyebab terbanyak fraktur pada vertebra adalah trauma dengan energi besar akibat jatuh dari ketinggian. Laki-laki 3 kali lebih banyak mengalami fraktur vertebra dibanding perempuan.

Kata kunci: Epidemiologi, fraktur vertebra, trauma spinal

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