Analisis Faktor Yang Berhubungan Dengan Hipertensi Pada Remaja

Zahrotul Fitria Suryawan

Sari

Background: Hypertension is the cardiovascular disease that contribute to at least 45% of deaths from heart disease, and 51% of deaths from stroke. Adolescents with high blood pressure have a high risk of becoming hypertensive during adulthood.

Objective: This study was aimed to investigate factors correlating with hypertension in adolescent.

Methods: This study design was correlational with cross-sectional approach. The number of respondents was 125 people selected by simple random sampling technique. The independent variable of this research is gender, family history, BMI (Body Mass Index), sodium intake, smoking, psychogenic stress, parental income, and physical activity. The dependent variable of this research is hypertension. Data were taken through questionnaires, measurement of blood pressure, weight, and height and data analyzed using Spearman Correlation and Chi-Square test with α<0,05.

Results: The results showed a majority of respondents aged 16 (76,8%). The results of statistical tests indicate that there are correlation between BMI (p=0,000; r= 0,355), and physical activity (p=0,047; r= -0,178 ) with hypertension in adolescent. Gender (p=0,281), family history (p=0,792), sodium intake (p=0,152), smoking (p=0,698), psychogenic stress (p=0,345), and parental income (p=0,945) not related to hypertension in adolescent.

Conclusion : This research shows the majority of hypertension in adolescent into category normal, and the factors most associated is BMI. Further studies are expected to conduct research or to other factors and other research designs associated with hypertension in adolescent.

Kata Kunci

Adolescent; Hypertension; Risk factors

Teks Lengkap:

PDF

Referensi

Angesti, A. N., Triyanti, & Sartika, R. D. (2018). Riwayat Hipertensi Keluarga sebagai Faktor Dominan Hipertensi pada Remaja Kelas XI SMA Sejahtera 1 Depok Tahun 2017. Buletin Penelitian Kesehatan, XLVI No. 1, 8.

Avihani, R. A. (2012). Densitas Energi Makanan dan Hereditas Sebagai Faktor Risiko Hipertensi Obesitik Pada Remaja Awal [Skripsi]. Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro.

Azhim, A., Akioka, A., Akutagawa, M., Hirao, Y., Yoshizaki, K., Obara, S., et al. (2007). Effect of Gender on Blood Flow Velocities and Blood Pressure: Role of Body Weight and Height. New York: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Batara, D., Bodhi, W., & Kepel, B. J. (2016). Hubungan Obesitas dengan Tekanan Darah dan Aktivitas Fisik pada Remaja di Kota Bitung. Jurnal e-Biomedik (eBm), IV No. 1, 91.

Black, J. M., & Hawks, J. H. (2014). Keperawatan Medikal Bedah: Manajemen Klinis untuk Hasil yang Diharapkan (8th ed.). Singapura: Elsevier.

Daniels, S. R. (2015). How to Define Hypertension in Children and Adolescents. Retrieved September 25, 2018, from https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.115.020531

Day, W. (2013). A Global Brief on Hypertension. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Dinkes. (2017). Laporan Tahunan Dinas Kesehatan 2016. Surabaya: Dinas Kesehatan Pemerintah Kota Surabaya.

Essouma, M., Noubiap, J. J., Bigna, J. J., Nansseu, J. R., Jingi, A. M., Aminda, L. N., et al. (2015, September 15). Hypertension Prevalence, Incident and Risk Factor among Children and Adolescents in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocol. Retrieved Juli 9, 2018, from https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/5/9/e008472

Ewald, D. R., & Haldeman, L. A. (2016). Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension. Global Pediatric Health, III, 16.

Fitriana, R., Lipoeto, N. I., & Triana, V. (2013). Faktor Risiko Kejadian Hipertensi pada Remaja di Wilayah Kerja Puskesmas Rawat Inap Sidomulyo Kota Pekanbaru. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat, VII No. 1, 10.

Fitrianingsih, Siswanto, Y., & Tarmali, A. (2015). Beberapa Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Kejadian Hipertensi pada Remaja di SMAN 1 Ungaran Kabupaten Semarang. Jurnal Gizi dan Kesehatan, VIII No. 17, 33.

Fitriany, J., Ramayati, R., Supriatmo, Rusdidjas, Rina, O., & Siregar, R. (2015). Blood Pressure and Lipid Profiles in Adolescents with Hypertensive Parents. Paediatrica Indonesiana, LV No. 6, 335.

Hanifah, R. (2016). Hubungan Stres dan Asupan Natrium terhadap Tekanan Darah pada Remaja SMA di Kota Yogyakarta [Skripsi]. Retrieved Agustus 30, 2018, from http://etd.repository.ugm.ac.id/index.php?mod=penelitian_detail⊂=PenelitianDetail&act=view&typ=html&buku_id=99734&obyek_id=4

Huynh, V. W., & Chiang, J. J. (2016). Subjective Social Status and Adolescent Health: The Role of Stress and Sleep. Youth & Society, 5-8.

K., M. T., & Sulchan, M. (2012). Asupan Tinggi Lemak dan Aktivitas Olahraga sebagai Faktor Risiko Terjadinya Hipertensi Obesitik pada Remaja Awal. Journal of Nutrition College, I No. 1, 385-386.

Kagura, J., Adair, L. S., Pisa, P. T., Griffiths, P. L., Pettifor, J. M., & Norris, S. A. (2016). Association of Socioeconomic Status Change Between Infancy and Adolescence, and Blood Pressure, in South African Young Adults: Birth to Twenty Cohort. Retrieved September 21, 2018, from https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/bmjopen/6/3/e008805.full.pdf

Kalangi, J. A., Umboh, A., & Pateda, V. (2015). Hubungan Faktor Genetik dengan Tekanan Darah pada Remaja. Jurnal e-Clinic (eCl), III No.1, 68.

Kemenkes RI. (2014, 5 17). Infodatin Hipertensi. Retrieved 5 2, 2018, from Pusat Data dan Informasi Kemenkes RI: http://www.depkes.go.id/download.php?file=download/pusdatin/infodatin/infodatin-hipertensi.pdf

Kemenkes RI. (2017, Mei 17). Sebagian Besar Penderita Hipertensi Tidak Menyadarinya. Retrieved 4 6, 2018, from depkes.go.id: http://www.depkes.go.id/article/print/17051800002/sebagian-besar-penderita-hipertensi-tidak-menyadarinya.html

KompasTV. (2018). Waspada, Hipertensi dapat Menyerang Remaja. (KompasTV) Retrieved Mei 8, 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vtZomfqs2NM

Maranon, R., & Reckelhoff, J. (2013). Sex and Gender Differences in Control of Blood Pressure. Clinical Science National Institutes of Health, VII No. 125, 311-318.

Marlina, Y., Huriyati, E., & Sunarto, Y. (2016). Indeks Massa Tubuh dan Aktivitas Fisik dengan Tekanan Darah pada Pelajar SMA. Jurnal Gizi Klinik Indonesia, XII No. 4, 160.

Mayasari, M., Utomo, M., & Meikawati, W. (2012). Beberapa Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Kejadian Hipertensi pada Remaja [Skripsi]. Semarang: Universitas Muhammadiyah Semarang.

Mu, J., Zheng, S., Lian, Q., Liu, F., & Liu, Z. (2012). Evolution of blood pressure from adolescents to youth in salt sensitivies: a 18-year follow-up study in Hanzhong children cohort. Nutrition Journal, XI, 1-4.

Mujur, A. (2011). Hubungan Antara Pola Makan dan Aktivitas Fisik denganKejadian Berat Badan Lebih pada Remaja [Skripsi]. Semarang: Universitas Diponegoro.

Peach, H., Gaultney, J. F., & Reeve, C. L. (2015). Sleep Characteristics, Body Mass Index, and Risk for Hypertension in Young Adolescents. J Youth Adolescence, XLIV, 280.

Putra, Y. W., & Rizqi, A. S. (2018). Index Massa Tubuh (IMT) Mempengaruhi Aktivitas Remaja Putri SMP Negeri 1 Sumberlawang. Gaster, XVI No. 1, 105.

Riskesdas. (2013, Desember 1). Hasil RISKESDAS 2013. Retrieved Mei 30, 2018, from depkes: www.depkes.go.id/resources/download/general/Hasil%20Riskesdas%202013.pdf

Saing, J. H. (2005). Hipertensi Pada Remaja. Sari Pediatri, VI No.4, 159.

Santoso, D. (2013). Prevalence of Hypertension in School and College Students. Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Nasional, VII No. 11, 511.

Saputri, D. E. (2010). Hubungan Stres dengan Hipertensi pada Penduduk di Indonesia Tahun 2007 (Analisis Data Riskesdas 2007) [Skripsi]. Depok: Universitas Indonesia.

Stabouli, S., Papakatsika, S., & Kotsis, V. (2011). The Role of Obesity, Salt and Exercise on Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Expert Reviews of Cardiovascular Therapy, IX, 756.

Sulastri, D., & Sidhi. (2011). Faktor Risiko Hipertensi pada Siswa SMU Adabiah di Kota Padang. Majalah Kedokteran Andalas, XXXV No. 2, 147.

Sundar, J. S., Adaikalam, J. S., Parameswari, S., Valarmarthi, S., Valarmarthi, S., & Shantharam, D. (2013). Prevalence and Determinants of Hypertension among Urban School Children in the Age Group of 13- 17 Years in, Chennai, Tamilnadu. Epidemiology: Open Access, III, 4.

Supariasa, I., Bacri, B., & Fajar, I. (2002). Penilaian status gizi. Jakarta: EGC.

Yin, S. (2010). Weight Status, Body Image Perception and Physical Activity of Malay Housewives in Kampung Chengkau Ulu, Negeri Sembilan. International Journal For The Advancement Of Science & Arts.

Yuliana, T., Hartoyo, M., & Nurullita, U. (2017). Perbedaan Tekanan Darah Berdasarkan Status Merokok. Retrieved Agustus 15, 2018, from http://ejournal.stikestelogorejo.ac.id/index.php/ilmukeperawatan/article/viewFile/655/653

Yusrizal, M., Indarto, D., & Akhyar, M. (2016). Risk of Hypertension in Adolescents with Over Nutritional Status in Pangkalpinang, Indonesia. Journal of Epidemiology and Public Health, I No. 1, 32-33.


DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30651/jkm.v4i1.2047

Refbacks

  • Saat ini tidak ada refbacks.